Terpenes

The World of Terpenes

 

Terpenes are aromatic oils that create cannabis varieties with distinctive scent and flavors like citrus, berry, mint, and pine. Potent terpenes allow for more robust flavor, aroma and effects. Over 100 different terpenes have been identified in the cannabis plant, and every strain tends toward a unique terpene type and composition.

Their differences may be subtle, but terpenes can add interest to the consumption of cannabis. Terpenes may also add additional therapeutic applications to cannabis, based on their unique medicinal properties. With their unlimited combinations of potential effects, terpenes open up new scientific and medical outlooks for cannabis research.

The Lab at Tamarack Cannabis tests for 9 different terpenes in our flower.

 

Myrcene

Formula: C10H16
Molecular Mass: 136.1252 g/mol
Boiling Point: 168 °C (334 °F)
Vapor Pressure: 7.00 mmHg (20 °C)

Myrcene is often considered one of the most important terpenes. Myrcene is found in fresh mango fruit, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus, lemongrass and many other plants. Myrcene is known to be anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and used in the treatment of spasms. It is also used to treat insomnia, and pain. More uniquely still, Myrcene has been shown to increase the maximum saturation level of the CB1 receptor, allowing for a greater maximum psychoactive effect. For most people, eating a fresh mango 45 minutes before inhaling cannabis, will result in a faster onset of psycho activity and greater intensity. 

Our strains with a high concentration of Myrcene:  Animal Cookies, Biscotti, Candyland, Chem Cookies, Colorado Chem, Do-si-Dos, Eminence, Face Off OG, Hellroaring, Motorbreath, Now or Never, Orange Cookies, Samoas, Snow Ghost, Sour Diesel, Sunset Sherbet, Supermax OG, Wedding Cake, White Tahoe, Wifi 43

 

Limonene

Formula: C10H16
Molecular Mass: 136.1252 g/mol
Boiling Point: 176 °C (349 °F)
Vapor Pressure: 1.50 mmHg (25 °C)

Limonene is a cyclic terpene of major importance with a strong citrus odor and bitter taste. It has very low toxicity, and humans are rarely ever allergic to it. Medicinally, Limonene is best known for treating gastric reflux and as an anti-fungal agent. It’s ability to permeate proteins makes it ideal for treating toenail fungus. It’s also useful in treating depression and anxiety. It’s also been shown to be effective anti-tumor while at the same time being an immuno-stimulant. Limonene is one of two major compounds formed from α-Pinene.

Our strains with a high concentration of Limonene: Do-Si-Dos, Gorilla Punch, Hellroaring, Jungle Cookies, Kush Cookies, LA Kush Cake, Samoas, Slurricane, Snow Ghost, South Face OG, Strawberry Gelato, Sundae Driver, Three Sisters, Whitefire OG

Caryophyllene

Formula: C15H24O
Molecular Weight: 220.35046 g/mol
Boiling Point: 257 °C (495 °F)
Vapor Pressure: NA

Caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants including Thai basils, cloves and black pepper, and has a rich spicy odor. Research has shown that Caryophyllene has affinity for the CB2 endocannabinoid receptor. Caryophyllene is known to be anti-septic, anti-bacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory.

Our strains with a high concentration of Caryophyllene: Apple Fritter, Candyland, Glacier Cookies, Gorilla Glue, Hellroaring, Mochi, Montana Silvertip, Sunset Sherbet, Tropicanna

Ocimene

Formula: C10H16
Molecular Mass:136.24 g/mol
Boiling Point: 66°C (150°F)
Vapor Pressure: 1.56 mmHg (25 °C)

Ocimenes are a group of isomeric hydrocarbons. Ocimenes are monoterpenes found in a variety of fruits and plants. As an acyclic terpene (similar to myrcene), ocimene is unstable in air and nearly insoluble in water. Ocimene is soluble in some common organic solvents, such as acetone or ethanol. The mixture of ocimenes, along with their pure compounds, has a sweet, citrusy, herbaceous, and woody odor. Ocimene is identified in an extensive variety of herbs and fruits, including mint, parsley, tarragon, pepper, basil, mangoes, kumquats, orchids, and cannabis. It is used in perfumery for its sweet herbal scent. Ocimene has been found to possess antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. 

Our strains with a high concentration of Ocimene: Glacier Cookies, Mimosa, Now or Never, Surfer Girl

Linalool

Formula: C10H18O

Molecular Mass: 154.1358 g/mol
Boiling Point: 198 °C (388 °F)
Vapor Pressure: 0.17 mmHg (25 °C)

Linalool is simple terpene alcohol, probably best known for the pleasant floral odor it gives to lavender plants. Linalool has been isolated in several hundred different plants including lavenders, citrus, laurels, birch, coriander and rosewood. Linalool has been used for several thousands of years as a sleep aid and is a critical precursor in the formation of Vitamin E. It has been used in the treatment of both psychosis and anxiety, and as an anti-epileptic agent. It also grants relief from pain and has been used as an analgesic. 

Our strains with a high concentration of Linalool: Do-Si-Dos, Face Off OG, Gary Payton, Jungle Cookies, Samoas, Sundae Driver, South Face OG, Three Sisters

Alpha-Pinene

Formula: C10H16
Molecular Mass: 136.1252 g/mol
Boiling Point: 155 °C (311 °F)
Vapor Pressure: Not Available

Alpha-Pinene is one of the principle monoterpenes, and is important physiologically in both plants and animals, and to our environment. α-Pinene tends to react with other chemicals, forming a variety of other terpenes (like D-Limonene) and other compounds. α-Pinene has been used for centuries as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma; ever notice how your lungs seem to open up when hiking through a pine forest in the warm summer? α-Pinene is also anti-inflammatory. It’s found in conifer trees, orange peels among others, and known for its sharp sweet odor. 

Our strains with a high concentration of Alpha-Pinene: Apple Fritter, Chem Cookies, Kush Cookies, Mimosa, Snow Ghost

Beta-Pinene

Formula: C10H18O
Molecular Mass: 136.23 g/mol
Boiling Point: 166°C (331°F)
Vapor Pressure:  2.93 mmHg @ 25.00 °C

Beta-Pinene is most known for it’s a woody and piney smell. It is one of the main compounds released by forest trees. β-pinene is commonly used in fragrance, essential oils, cooking as a flavoring additive and it also can serve as a preservative. Like α-pinene, β-pinene is widely recognized as an anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, (targeted at treating conditions such as arthritis and fibromyalgia), antiseptic, and antioxidant. It’s found in basil, dill, parsley and other plants. Both pinenes are noted to have the ability to increase mental alertness, clarity, and overall cognitive functions. 

Our strains with a high concentration of Beta-Pinene: Animal Cookies

Terpinolene

Formula: C10H16
Molecular Mass: 136.23404 g/mol
Boiling Point: 185˚C (365˚F)
Vapor Pressure: 0.74 mm Hg at 25˚C

Terpinolene is a monoterpene, part of the terpinene subfamily of terpenes. This family of four isomers is known for being anti-oxidant, immune-modulating and anti-biologically (anti-tumor, antibacterial, antifungal). It has also been used, for hundreds of years, in the treatment of insomnia. Terpinolene is found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind and conifers.

Our strains with a high concentration of Terpinolene: Orange Cookies, Surfer Girl

Humulene

Formula: C15H24
Molecular Mass: 204.1878 g/mol
Boiling Point: 198 °C (388 °F)
Vapor Pressure: 0.01 mmHg (25 °C)

Humulene is a sesquiterpene found in hops, cannabis sativa strains, and Vietnamese coriander, among other things. Humulene gives beer its ‘hoppy’ aroma. It is anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anorectic (suppresses appetite). It has commonly been blended with Caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation, and is well known to Chinese medicine.

Our strains with a high concentration of Humulene: Animal Cookies, Gorilla Glue, Tropicanna, Wifi 43

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